Revista Brasileira de Entomologia Revista Brasileira de Entomologia
Rev Bras Entomol 2017;61:203-7 - Vol. 61 Núm.3 DOI: 10.1016/j.rbe.2017.04.002
Systematics, Morphology and Biogeography
Two new species of Trichomyia Haliday 1839 (Diptera, Psychodidae, Trichomyiinae) from the Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil
Maíra Xavier Araújoa,, , Freddy Bravob, Claudio José Barros de Carvalhoa
a Universidade Federal do Paraná, Departamento de Zoologia, Laboratório de Biodiversidade e Biogeografia de Diptera, Curitiba, PR, Brazil
b Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Programa de Pós-graduação em Zoologia, Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Feira de Santana, BA, Brazil
Recebido 03 Janeiro 2017, Aceitaram 06 Abril 2017
Abstract

Two new species in the Trichomyiinae (Psychodidae), Trichomyia pantanensis sp. nov. and Trichomyia lamasi sp. nov., are described and illustrated. New records are given for the two additional species Trichomyia spinicauda Araújo & Bravo, 2016 and Trichomyia hispida Araújo & Bravo, 2016. These four species comprise the first records of the genus in the Pantanal region.

Keywords
Biomes, Moth flies, New records, Psychodid
Introduction

Trichomyia Haliday in Curtis, 1839 is the only extant genus in the Trichomyiinae. This subfamily comprises 191 species distributed throughout the world except Antarctica (Duckhouse, 1973a,b; Duckhouse and Lewis, 2007; Curler and Moulton, 2010; Omelkova and Ježek, 2012; Kvifte, 2012; Araújo and Bravo, 2016). Many species of Neotropical Trichomyia were recently described and now 122 species are recognized to this region. In Brazil, 82 species have been recorded, from the Amazon, Cerrado (semi-arid savanna) and Atlantic Rain Forest (Araújo and Bravo, 2016).

The Pantanal is a seasonally flooded savanna plain of approximately 140,000km2 with vegetation similar to that of the Cerrado (Diegues, 1994). A large part of the Pantanal is in the state of Mato Grosso and is an important ecosystem with a rich biodiversity (Almeida, 2004). While many Trichomyia species are known in Brazil, members of the genus were not previously found in the Pantanal. Here, we present the first records of Trichomyia in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso, with the description of two new species and range extensions of an additional two species.

Material and methods

All specimens used in this study are deposited either in the Coleção Entomológica do Museu de Zoologia da Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil (MZFS) or the Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil (MZSP). The specimens from Pantanal were collected during the Project SISBIOTA – Diptera, with CDC light trap. The specimens were treated with 10% KOH, dehydrated and mounted in Canada balsam. The general morphological terminology follows Cumming and Wood (2009); the antenna terminology of Trichomyia follows Ibáñez-Bernal (2004); wing terminology and the terminology for the male terminalia follows Wagner and Ibáñez-Bernal (2009) and Araújo and Bravo (2016).

TaxonomyTrichomyia lamasi sp. nov.

Diagnosis. Apex of gonocoxites rounded and with bristles. One pair of parameres fused basally and involved by a membranous parameral sheath. Hypoproct pyriform with setulae.

Description. Male. Head ellipsoidal (Fig. 1). Antenna incomplete in the studied specimens; scape the same length as subspherical pedicel; flagellomeres pyriform and eccentric (Fig. 6); ascoids 1.75 times flagellomere length. Palpus formula 1.0:0.5:0.7; 1st segment with sensilla in depressed pit on inner side (Fig. 3). Wing. R4+5 complete at base; r-m present and m-cu absent (Fig. 2).

Figs. 1–10.
(3.2MB).

Trichomyia lamasi sp. nov. 1. Head; 2. Left wing; 3. Palpus; 4. Arm of gonocoxite; 5. Male terminalia, lateral; 6. Scape, pedicel and basal flagellomeres; 7. Aedeagus and parameres, dorsal; 8. Parameres, ventral view; 9. Male terminalia, dorsal; 10. Cerci, epandrium and hypropoct (abbreviations: aed=aedeagus, ag=arm of gonocoxite, bri=gonocoxal bridge, cer=cercus, gst=gonostylus, hyp=hypoproct, pm=paramere, she=parameral sheath).

Male terminalia: Hypandrium fused with gonocoxites, with medial posterior expansion, bifurcate (Fig. 9), each pair of arm of gonocoxite with rounded apex and elongated bristles along the internal margin (Figs. 4, 5, 9). Gonostylus elongated and straight in dorsal view. One pair of parameres present, with apical setae, enclosed in a membranous parameral sheath (Figs. 7, 8). Aedeagus bifid. Ejaculatory apodeme 0.75 times the length of parameres (Fig. 9). Epandrium trapezoidal and pilose, with some alveoli concentrated at the apicolateral margins. Cercus rounded and pilose. Hypoproct pyriform with setulae and apical micropilosity (Fig. 10).

Material examined. Brazil, Mato Grosso, Poconé, 15-17.VII.2012, holotype male, A.M. Silva-Neto leg. (MZFS); 2 paratypes: 1 male, Mato Grosso, Chapada dos Guimarães, 5.X.1997, without name of collector. (MZSP); 1 male, Mato Grosso, Chapada dos Guimarães, 17.XI.1998, without name of collector (MZSP).

Etymology. The species is named in honor of Dr. Carlos José Einicker Lamas, curator of Diptera in the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, and general coordinator of the SISBIOTA Diptera project under which specimens were collected.

Distribution. Known from Poconé in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso.Remarks

Trichomyia lamasi sp. nov. does not have any diagnostic characteristics of the currently named subgenus of Trichomyia. The species does resemble those identified in the “truncata group” described in Araújo and Bravo (2016). The shape of the arm of gonocoxite of T. lamasi is similar to those in T. truncata Araújo & Bravo, 2016, T. manacapurensis Araújo & Bravo, 2016 and T. cinthiae Araújo & Bravo, 2016. However, the gonostylus is more elongate and thinner in T. lamasi. On the other hand, the shape of paramere is similar as T. nortensis Araújo & Bravo, 2016 (=projections of aedeagal complex, according Araújo and Bravo, 2016), a species not included in the “truncata group”. The setulae of the hypoproct, which is one of the diagnostic characters of T. lamasi, is also found in T. manacapurensis, T. truncata and T. nortensis.

Trichomyia pantanensis sp. nov.

Diagnosis. Palpus four-segmented. Gonocoxite with pilose internal lobe. Gonostylus bifurcated and aedeagus bifid.

Description. Male. Head subcircular (Fig. 11). Antenna with subcylindrical scape shorter than subspherical pedicel; flagellomeres pyriform and eccentric (Fig. 17); 13th flagellomere subcylindrical with terminal apiculus separated by suture (Fig. 13); ascoids 1.35 times flagellomere length. Palpus four-segmented, with first two segments partially fused; palpus formula 1.0:0.5:0.8:1.5, first and second segment with sensilla in depressed pits on the inner side (Fig. 14). Wing. Apex of Sc sclerotized; R4+5 complete at base; r-m and m-cu absent (Fig. 12). Male terminalia: Hypandrium fused with gonocoxites (Fig. 19). Gonocoxite projects ventrally with a pilose internal lobe (Figs. 15, 19). Gonostylus bifurcated apically, slightly sclerotized, articulated to the apex of the gonocoxite, bare, curved and with pointed apices. Aedeagus bifid. One pair of membranous parameres (Fig. 19). Epandrium wider than long in dorsal view and bare (Fig. 18). Cercus pilose, abruptly constricted before apex in lateral view (Fig. 15). Hypoproct with apical micropilosity (Fig. 18).

Figs. 11–19.
(3.02MB).

Trichomyia pantanensis sp. nov. 11. Head; 12. Left wing; 13. Last flagellomeres, 14. Palpus; 15. Male terminalia, lateral; 16. Parameres and aedeagus; 17. Scape, pedicel and basal flagellomeres; 18. Cerci, epandrium and hypropoct; 19. Male terminalia, dorsal (abbreviations: aed=aedeagus, cer=cercus, gst=gonostylus, hyp=hypoproct, il=internal lobe, pm=paramere).

Material examined. Brazil, Mato Grosso, Poconé, 15–17.VII.2012, holotype male, A.M. Silva-Neto leg. (MZFS); 7 paratypes male, same locality, date and collector as holotype (MZSP); 21 paratype males, Mato Grosso, Barão de Melgaço, 7.IV.1998, without name of collector (MZFS); 1 paratype male, Mato Grosso, Barão de Melgaço, Pantanal, 10.IV.1998, INPA R.Q., R.N./P.E. legs., without name of collector.

Etymology. The epithet pantanensis refers to the region (the Pantanal) in which the new species commonly occurs.

Distribution. Known from Poconé in the Brazilian state, Mato Grosso.Remarks

Trichomyia pantanensis is placed in the subgenus OpistotrichomyiaBravo, 2001 because it has the palpus four-segmented with the first two partially fused, the gonocoxite projected ventrally with an internal lobe having elongated bristles and gonostylus articulate apically to the gonocoxite. However, its aedeagus is shorter than that of T. brevitarsa (Rapp, 1945) and longer than that of T. riodocensis Alexander, Freitas & Quate, 2001. The gonostylus is bifurcated as in T. festivaBravo, 2001 and T. riodocensis, but the gonostylus of T. festiva has truncate apex. T. fluminensisBravo, 2001 and T. nocturnaBravo, 2001 have not gonostylus bifurcated and the internal lobe is shorter than that of T. pantanensis.

Trichomyia hispida Araújo & Bravo, 2016: 49–50, Figs. 28A–H

Remarks

Males of T. hispida can be recognized by the few bristles on the posterior arm of the gonocoxites, two pairs of parameres with the first dorsal pair being subtriangular with pointed apex, and the second pair with sharp apex and longer than the dorsal paramere, jointed apically by a ventral parameral sheath. Epandrium subrectangular and cercus bottle-shaped in lateral view with two apical bristles.

Material examined. Brazil, Bahia, Coração de Maria, 28.I.2004, holotype male, F. Bravo leg. (MZFS)

Other material examined. Brazil, Mato Grosso, Chapada dos Guimarães, Vale da Benção, 1 male, 15–17.I.2013, leg. Silva-Neto, A.M. (MZFS)

Distribution. Known from the type locality in Brazil, state of Bahia (Coração de Maria) and state of Mato Grosso (Chapada dos Guimarães – new record).

Trichomyia spinicauda Araújo & Bravo, 2016: 68–69, fig. 42A–F

Remarks

Male T. spinicauda can be recognized by the medial posterior expansion of hypandrium/gonocoxites, rounded apically; the arm of the gonocoxites with rod-like bristles apically and thick bristles basally; two pairs of parameres and bifid aedeagus.

Material examined. Brazil, Bahia, Coração de Maria, holotype male, 14.VIII.2002, F. Bravo leg. (MZFS)

Other material examined. Brazil, Mato Grosso, Poconé, 1 male, 15–17.VII.2012, Silva-Neto, A.M. col. A.M. Silva-Neto leg. (MZFS).

Distribution. Known from the type locality in Brazil, state of Bahia (Coração de Maria) and state of Mato Grosso (Poconé – new record).

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Acknowledgments

We are grateful to SISBIOTA – Diptera (150078/2012-9; 150434/2013-8) and the Dr. Carlos José Einicker Lamas, general coordinator of Program of Research. To Alberto Moreira Silva Neto for assisting in the collections. Maíra Xavier Araújo received a grant from CNPq (159051/2013-4). Freddy Bravo received financial support from CNPq (305055/2012-7) and Claudio J.B. de Carvalho received a research grant from CNPq (304713/2011-2). The English was reviewed in its entirety by James J. Roper Ph.D.

References
Almeida, 2004
F.F.M. Almeida
Geologia do Continente Sul Americano: Evolução da Obra de Fernando Marques de Almeida
Beca, (2004)
Araújo and Bravo, 2016
M.X. Araújo,F. Bravo
Description of fourty four new species, taxonomic notes and identification key to Neotropical Trichomyia Haliday in Curtis (Diptera Psychodidae, Trichomyiinae)
Zootaxa, 4130 (2016), pp. 1-76
Bravo, 2001
F. Bravo
Opisthotrichomyia, subgênero novo de Trichomyiinae (Diptera, Psychodidae) e descrição de três novas espécies do Brasil
Sitientibus, 1 (2001), pp. 50-55
Cumming and Wood, 2009
J.M. Cumming,D.M. Wood
Adult morphology and terminology
Manual of Central American Diptera, pp. 9-50
Curler and Moulton, 2010
G.R. Curler,J.K. Moulton
Descriptions of three new species of Psychodidae (Diptera) from the southeastern United States
Zootaxa, 2524 (2010), pp. 51-62
Diegues, 1994
A.C.S. Diegues
An inventory of Brazilian wetlands. With contribution from NUPAUB – Center for Research on Human Population and Wetlands in Brazil
The IUCN Wetlands Programme, (1994)
Duckhouse, 1973a
D.A. Duckhouse
Family Psychodidae
A Catalogue of the Diptera of the Oriental Region, pp. 226-244
Duckhouse, 1973b
D.A. Duckhouse
Family Psychodidae
A Catalogue of the Diptera of the Americas South of the United States, pp. 1-29
Duckhouse and Lewis, 2007
D.A. Duckhouse,D.J. Lewis
15. Family Psychodidae
Catalog of the Diptera of the Australasian and Oceanic Regions,
Available at: http://hbs.bishopmuseum.org/aocat/psychod.html (accessed 15.08.16)
Ibáñez-Bernal, 2004
S. Ibáñez-Bernal
Notes on the known species of Trichomyia Haliday of Mexico, with the establishment of a synonymy and the description of a new species (Diptera Psychodidae)
Zootaxa, 523 (2004), pp. 1-14
Kvifte, 2012
G.M. Kvifte
Catalogue and bibliography of Afrotropical Psychodidae Bruchomyiinae, Psychodinae, Sycoracinae and Trichomyiinae
Zootaxa, 3231 (2012), pp. 29-52
Omelkova and Ježek, 2012
M. Omelkova,J. Ježek
A new species of the genus Trichomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae) and new faunistic data on non-phlebotomine moth flies from the Podyjí NP and its surroundings (Czech Republic)
Acta Entomol. Musei Nat. Pragae, 52 (2012), pp. 505-533
Wagner and Ibáñez-Bernal, 2009
R. Wagner,S. Ibáñez-Bernal
Psychodidae (sand flies, moth flies or owl flies)
Manual of Central American Diptera, pp. 319-336
Corresponding author. (Maíra Xavier Araújo mairaxaraujo@gmail.com)
Copyright © 2017. Sociedade Brasileira de Entomologia
Rev Bras Entomol 2017;61:203-7 - Vol. 61 Núm.3 DOI: 10.1016/j.rbe.2017.04.002