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Vol. 62. Núm. 2.Abril - Junho 2018
Páginas 83-168
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Vol. 62. Núm. 2.Abril - Junho 2018
Páginas 83-168
Short Communication
DOI: 10.1016/j.rbe.2018.03.001
New record of Machaeriobia machaerii (Kieffer, 1913) (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) in Brazil and association with host–plant species
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Maria V. Urso-Guimarãesa,b
a Universidade Federal de São Carlos – Campus Sorocaba, Departamento de Biologia, Centro de Ciências Humanas e Biológicas, Laboratório de Sistemática de Diptera, Sorocaba, SP, Brazil1
b Museu de Zoologia de São Paulo/USP (MZUSP), São Paulo, SP, Brazil2
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Abstract

The geographical distribution of Machaeriobia machaerii (Kieffer, 1913) (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae), previously known only from Tubarão, Santa Catarina State, Brazil is extended to São Paulo State, Brazil. Illustrations of diagnostic characters of the male, pupa, and larva are provided, and the association with the species of host plant, Machaerium hirtum (Vell.) Stellfeld (Fabaceae) is established.

Keywords:
Gall maker
Geographical distribution
Neotropical region
Seasonal Semideciduous Forest
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Introduction

Spherical hairy galls on branches of Machaerium hirtum (Vell.) Stellfeld (Fig. 1) were sampled in a remnant of Seasonal Semideciduous Forest in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo State, Brazil. After rearing, I obtained from these galls the larva, pupa, and male. The specimens belong to the cecidomyiid genus MachaeriobiaRübsaamen, 1916, in possessing the diagnostic characters of simple tarsal claws, two-segmented palpi (Gagné, 1994), larva without mamelons beneath the lateral papillae, and with the prothoracic spatula present (Tavares, 1920). The host plant was identified as M. hirtum (Vell.) Stellfeld (Fabaceae), an endemic species to Brazil reported in rainforest and semideciduous forests of the Atlantic Forest Biome, and which also occupies areas of gallery forest in the Cerrado Biome (Filardi et al., 2013).

Fig. 1.
(0,19MB).

Branch of Machaerium hirtum (Vell.) Stellfeld, host plant of Machaeriobia machaerii (Kieffer, 1913).

Similar galls were described for other species of Machaerium Pers. collected in three localities in Brazil. The first record of similar galls was for an unidentified species of Machaerium sampled in Tubarão, Santa Catarina State (Rübsaamen,1908: p. 120, Fig. 2, larva; and p. 155, description of the gall and larva). The cecidomyiid specimens obtained were described as Uleela machaeriiKieffer, 1913, based on the larva (Kieffer, 1913); and as Machaeriobia brasiliensisRübsaamen, 1916, based on the female, pupa, and larva (Rübsaamen, 1916). Later, U. machaerii was synonymized under M. brasiliensis by Gagné (1994) based on the similarities of the larvae. This author also illustrated the male terminalia (Gagné, 1994: p. 112, Fig. 87). The second record was from Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, on leaflets of Machaerium aculeatum Raddi (Fernandes et al., 1987: p. 119, illustration of gall; Fernandes et al., 1988: p. 17, description of gall). The specimens obtained from these galls were recognized as a potential new species of Anadiplosis Tavares, 1916 (Fernandes et al., 1987, 1988; Gagné, 1994). The third record was from Teresópolis, Rio de Janeiro State, on bud galls of Machaerium macaense C.V. Mendonça, A.M.G. Azevedo & H.C. Lima (Maia et al., 2016). The specimens were described as Machaeriobia gemmae Maia, 2016.

In this contribution I report the association of Machaeriobia machaerii with M. hirtum on spherical hairy galls on branches, and expand the geographical distribution of M. machaerii to Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo State.

Material and methods

Branches of M. hirtum with spherical hairy galls on leaves, branches, and buds were collected on 26.ix.1996 on the campus of the Universidade de São Paulo, Municipality of Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo State, Brazil (S21°10′12.698″, W47°51′31.626″). The sampling area is a remnant of Seasonal Semideciduous Forest. Some galls were opened to obtain immature specimens, and other galls were maintained in plastic pots for rearing of adults. The specimens were preserved in 80% ethanol and later mounted on slides following the methodology described by Gagné (1994). The material is deposited in the Diptera collection of the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo/USP (MZSP).

Results and discussion

I obtained one male, one pupa and one larva of M. machaerii from the spherical hairy galls on branches of M. hirtum (Fabaceae). This collection expands the geographical distribution of M. machaerii to Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo State. The specimens match with the male terminalia, pupa and larva of M. machaerii (Kieffer, 1913). The diagnostic characters of M. machaerii observed in the specimens are presented in Figs. 2–5. Characters of larvae and male terminalia were also used to recognize the species, and are shown in Figs. 6 and 7.

Figs. 2–5.
(0,39MB).

Diagnostic characters of Machaeriobia machaerii in the specimens from Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo State. 2. Simple tarsal claws, 3. One-segmented palpus, 4. Bulbous ovipositor of female pupa, 5. Larval thoracic spatula.

Figs. 6 and 7.
(0,48MB).

Distinctive characters of Machaeriobia machaerii found in the specimens from Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo State. 6. Terminal segment of larva, 7. Male terminalia (dorsal view).

Examined material: BRAZIL, São Paulo State: Ribeirão Preto (Campus of the Universidade de São Paulo, S21°10′12.698″, W47°51′31.626″), 1 larva, 1 pupa, 1♂, col. 26.ix.1996; ♂ emerg. 07.x.1996, Urso-Guimarães, M.V. col. (MZSP, slide-mounted).

Considering the wide distribution of M. hirtum in most of Brazil except for Amapá, Roraima, and Rio Grande do Sul (Filardi et al., 2013), M. machaerii likely also occurs in these states, on the host plant. Further collections are needed to confirm this supposition.

Conflicts of interest

The author declares no conflict of interest.

Acknowledgements

The author acknowledges support from FAPESP (Proc. #96/11.783-9), Dr. Carlos J.E. Lamas for providing access to the facilities in MZUSP, Dr. Ricardo Barosela (FFCLRP/USP) for identifying the host–plant genus, and Dr. Ingrid Koch (IB/UNICAMP) for identifying the species of the host plant.

References
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G.W. Fernandes,E. Tameirão-Neto,R.P. Martins
Food web relationships involving Anadiplosis sp. galls (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) on Machaerium aculeatum (Leguminosae)
Rev. Bras. Bot., 10 (1987), pp. 117-123
[Fernandes et al., 1988]
G.W. Fernandes,E. Tameirão-Neto,R.P. Martins
Ocorrência e caracterização de galhas entomógenas na vegetação do campus Pampulha da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais
Rev. Bras. Zool., 5 (1988), pp. 11-29
[Filardi et al., 2013]
F.L.R. Filardi,H.C. Lima,B.B. Klitgaard,A.L.B. Sartori
Taxonomy and nomenclature of the neotropical Machaerium hirtum complex (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae)
Brittonia, 65 (2013), pp. 154-170
[Gagné, 1994]
R.J. Gagné
The Gall Midges of the Neotropical Region
Cornell University Press, (1994)pp. 352
[Kieffer, 1913]
J.J. Kieffer
Diptera. Fam. Cecidomyiidae. Genera Insectorum., 152 (1913), pp. 1-346
[Maia et al., 2016]
V.C. Maia,V.A.C. Wilson,R.F. Monteiro
A new species of Machaeriobia Rübsaamen, 1915 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) from Brazil
Rev. Bras. Entomol., 60 (2016), pp. 227-230
[Rübsaamen, 1908]
E.H. Rübsaamen
Beiträge zur Kenntnis aussereuropäischer Zoocecidien. III
Gallen aus Brasilien und Peru. Marcellia, (1908)pp. 110-173
[Rübsaamen, 1916]
E.H. Rübsaamen
Beitrag zur Kenntnis aussereuropäischer Gallmücken
Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zur Berlin, 1915 (1916), pp. 431-485
[Tavares, 1920]
J.S. Tavares
Anadiplosariae, nouvelle tribu de Cecidomyiinae (Dipt.)
Marcellia, 17 (1920), pp. 57-72

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